Genetics and Plant Propagation Division

 The division is engaged with genetic improvement of forestry species, encompassing conservation of genetic resources of Teak (Tectona grandis), Chandan (Santalum album), Salai (Boswellia serrata), neem (Azadirachta indica) and Bija (Pterocarpus marsupium) through selection and collection of germplasm from diverse areas of Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Chhattisgarh. Biotechnological interventions, including molecular marker assisted evaluation of germplasm have been worked out for future performance of Tectona grandis, Santalum album and Boswellia serrata. The division also dealt with selection and collection of germplasm of medicinal plants like Rauvolfia serpentina and Tinospora cordifolia across the country for screening of best accession for higher chemical content. Selection of best sources for higher productivity of Diospyros melanoxylon, Bauhinia vahlii and Madhuca indica in Chhattisgarh has been done. Besides, the division has successfully developed macropropagation and micropropagation protocol for several woody species like, teak (Tectona grandis), khamer (Gmelina arborea), sissoo (Dalbergia sissoo), shisam (Dalbergia latifolia), safed siris (Albizia procera), neem (Azadirachta indica), twelve bamboo species and several medicinal plants like, chandramul (Kaempferia galanga), Brahmi (Bacopa monnierie), ashoka (Saraca indica), Ruta graveolens, Rauvolfia serpentina and  Tinospora cordifolia.

 Ongoing Projects

S.No.

Title of the Project

Funding Agency

Likely Year of Completion

Project leader

1

Germplasm Collection and Ex-Situ Conservation of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb (CAMPA)

CGFD (CAMPA) Raipur (CG)

2012-2017

Dr. Y.Mishra

2

All India Coordinated Programme for genetic improvement of Teak

ICFRE, Dehradun

2012-2022

Dr. S.A.Ansari 

(a)

Selection of plus trees, raising their progeny trials and establishing germplasm bank

ICFRE, Dehradun

2012-2022

Dr. Y.Mishra

(b)

Development of management practices of teak seed production areas, seedling seed orchards abd clonal seed orchards

ICFRE, Dehradun

2012-2022

Dr. Pramod Kumar

(c)

Production of Transgenic Tectona Grandis Tolerant to Defoliating Pests

ICFRE, Dehradun

2012-2022

Dr. F. Shirin 

(d)

Studies on population structure, linkage disequilibrium and marker-trait association mapping of teak

ICFRE, Dehradun

2012-2022

Shri Naseer Mohd 

3

Collection and morphomolecular characterization of critically endangered Litsea glutinosa germplasm from M.P. and Chhatisgarh

ICFRE, Dehradun

2013-2016

Dr. Naseer Mohd

4

Genetic Improvement of Dalbergia latifolia Roxb. through selection and evaluation of germplasm in central India

ICFRE, Dehradun

2013-2017

Dr.F.Shirin 

 

(a)

Survey and selection of plus trees and establishment of progeny trials of Dalbergia latifolia.

ICFRE, Dehradun

2013-2017

Dr.F.Shirin 

 

(b)

To refine existing micro-propagation protocols of Dalbergia latifolia for production of improved planting stock.

ICFRE, Dehradun

2013-2017

Dr.F.Shirin 

 

5

Bamboo genetic evaluation, improvement and propagation

NBM, New Delhi

2014-2018

Dr.Y.Mishra

6

Commercial production of quality planting material of bamboo species

NBM, New Delhi

2015-2019

Dr.Y.Mishra

7

Assessment of genetic structure, linkage disequilibrium and marker wood trait association in CPTs of teak (Tectona grandis L.F.) maintained at national teak germplasm bank a Chandrapur (M.S.) using molecular markers

DST, New Delhi

2016-2018

Dr. Naseer Mohd

 

8

Studies on improving adventitious rooting in Dalbergia latifolia Roxb. and field performance of its rooted plantlets

ICFRE, Dehradun

2016-2021

Dr.Pramod Kumar

Completed Projects

S. N.

Title of the Project

Funding Agency

Year of Completion

Project leader

1

Vegetative propagation and tree physiology: Development of a procedure for root surface area measurement.

ICFRE, Dehradun

1994 - 1995

Dr. S.A. Ansari

2

Vegetative propagation and tree physiology: Developing vegetative propagation techniques for forestry species (Dalbergia sissoo and Pongamia pinnata).

ICFRE, Dehradun

1994 - 1996

Dr. S.A. Ansari

3

Vegetative propagation and tree physiology: Developing vegetative propagation techniques for Bambusa vulgaris var. striata and Dendrocalamus strictus.

ICFRE, Dehradun

1995 - 1997

 

Dr. S.A. Ansari

4

Genetics and breeding of forest tree species: Genetic analysis of teak clones of Maharashtra origin

ICFRE, Dehradun

1994 - 1996

Dr. A.K.Mandal

5

Development of tissue culture protocols for important forestry species: Dendrocalamus asper

ICFRE, Dehradun

1994 - 1996

Dr. I.D. Arya

6

Development of tissue culture protocols for important forestry species  : Bambusa bambos

ICFRE, Dehradun

1994 - 1996

Dr. Sarita Arya

7

Developing tissue culture protocols for forestry species : Dendrocalamus membranaceus.

ICFRE, Dehradun

1994 - 1996

Dr. I.D. Arya

8

Developing tissue culture protocols for forestry species : Bambusa nutans

ICFRE, Dehradun

1995 - 1997

Dr. Sandeep Kumar

9

Development of tissue culture protocols for forestry species : Dendrocalamus giganteus

ICFRE, Dehradun

1995 - 1997

Dr. I.D. Arya

10

Genetics and breeding of forest tree species : Studies on inheritance pattern in teak of south Indian origin

ICFRE, Dehradun

1996 - 1997

Dr. A.K. Mandal

11

Development of an improved  method for selection of seed stands for conversion into seed production areas

ICFRE, Dehradun

1996 - 1997

Dr. A.K. Mandal

12

Vegetative propagation and tree physiology: Development of vegetative propagation techniques for forestry species (Albizia procera and Azadirachta indica).

ICFRE, Dehradun

1996 - 1998

Dr. S.A. Ansari

13

Genetics and breeding of forest tree species : Genetic evaluation of teak of Orissa origin

ICFRE, Dehradun

1997 - 2000

Dr. A.K. Mandal

14

Genetics and breeding of forest tree species  : Genetics of seed and seedling characters in Albizia procera

ICFRE, Dehradun

1997 - 2000

Dr.Rajesh Sharma, (upto 1997-98) Shri Pravin H.Chawhaan (Since Oct. 1998)

15

Vegetative propagation of forestry species  : Evolving vegetative propagation technology for teak (Tectona grandis)

ICFRE, Dehradun

1997 - 2000

Dr. S.A. Ansari

16

Vegetative propagation of forestry species  : Evolving vegetative propagation technology for Albizia procera

ICFRE, Dehradun

1997 - 2000

Dr. Sanjay Singh

17

Developing tissue culture protocols for forestry species  : Micropropagation of Dendrocalamus strictus

ICFRE, Dehradun

1997 - 2000

Dr. Yogeshwar Mishra

18

Developing tissue culture protocols for forestry species  : Micropropagation of Bambusa vulgaris and Kaempferia galanga

ICFRE, Dehradun

1997 - 2000

Dr. Fatima Shirin

19

Screening populations of Dalbergia sissoo for tolerance to salt and water stress using physiomorphological and biochemical criteria.

ICFRE, Dehradun

2004 - 2007

Dr. Sanjay Singh

20

Studies on cataloguing the genetic variation in teak species (Tectona grandis and Tectona hamiltonaii) using molecular markers

DBT.

New Delhi

2003 -  2006

Dr. S.A. Ansari

21

Developing tissue culture protocols for forestry species (a) Tectona grandis (Teak)

ICFRE, Dehradun

2000 - 2004

Dr. Fatima Shirin

22

Developing tissue culture protocols for forestry species (b) Gmelina arborea

ICFRE, Dehradun

2000 - 2004

Dr. Yogeshwar Mishra

23

 Studies on carbonic anhydrase and its relationships with photosynthesis and Productivity in Teak (Tectona grandis)

CSIR,

New Delhi

2001 - 2004

Dr. S.A. Ansari

24

Studies on inheritance pattern of selected wood traits in teak (Tectona grandis L.)

ICFRE, Dehradun

2004 - 2007

Dr.C.Narayanan

25

Studies on differential adventitious rooting response vis--vis clonal propagation of economically important forestry species

ICFRE, Dehradun

2001- 2005

Dr. S.A. Ansari

26

Investigations into the nature of inheritance and breeding of teak

ICFRE, Dehradun

2000 - 2005

Pravin H. Chawhaan

27

Studies on refinement and scaling up of existing micro-propagation and macro-propagation technologies for Bambusa nutans and Bambusa tulda.

DBT,

New Delhi

2004 - 2007

Dr. S.A. Ansari

28

Evaluation and prediction of oil bearing capacity of Sandal (Santalum album L.) germplasm using physio-morpho-molecular marker

DSAE, New Delhi 

2007 - 2010

Dr.S.A.Ansari 

29

Molecular characterization of ex-situ conserved germplasm and identification of molecular marker associated with wood quality traits in Tectona grandis L.f.

DBT, New Delhi 

 

2007 - 2010

Dr.S.A.Ansari 

 

30

Varietal improvement of Rauwolfia serpentine and Tinospora cordifolia through germplasm selection evaluation and breeding

MoHFW, New Delhi  

2006 - 2010

Dr.Y.Mishra 

 

31

Studies on in vitro regeneration of plantlets and their genetic (molecular) fidelity in Saraca indica Linn., a vulnerable medicinal tree

CSIR, New Delhi 

2006 - 2010

Dr.F.Shirin 

 

32

Studies on endogenous auxin level and its relationship with adventitious rooting potential in Dalbergia latifolia Roxb.

ICFRE, Dehradun

2008 - 2011

Dr.Pramod Kumar

33

Genetic variation for in vitro morphogenetic  potential of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. clones and evaluation of their field performance

ICFRE, Dehradun

2007 - 2012

Dr.Y.Mishra 

 

34

Counterbalancing the detrimental effect of Sponge Iron Factory-emitted Particulate Matters (SIFPM) with the protective effect of Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhiza (VAM) on the growth of seedlings of important tree species

ICFRE, Dehradun

2009 - 2012

Dr.R.Sett

 

 

35

Studies on development of in vitro regeneration system for Albizia procera (Roxb.) Benth

MPCST, Bhopal

2010 - 2015

Dr.S.A.Ansari

36

Development of Methodology and Parameters for selection of superior genetic plants of five NTFP species

MSFD, Pune

2011 - 2012

Shri Naseer Mohd 

37

Studies on variation in reserpine content in some high yielding genotypes of in vitro and seedling raised Rauvolfia serpentine Benth

MPCST, Bhopal

2011 - 2014

Dr.Y.Mishra 

 

38

Studies on variations with rerspect to in vitro azadirachtin production in selected high yield- ing populations of Azadirachta indica A. Juss.

ICFRE, Dehradun

2010 - 2013

Dr.F.Shirin 

 

39

Technology to regenerate/multiply mahul (Bau- hinia vahlii) patta for getting higher production

CGMFP, Raipur (CG)

2011 - 2014

Dr.F.Shirin 

40

Studies on assessment of genetic diversity and structure of Boswellia serrata Roxb. populations through RAPD and ISSR molecular markers

ICFRE, Dehradun

2011 - 2015

Dr.S.A.Ansari 

 

41

Collection of germplasm of Madhuca indica J.F. Gmel for identification of best sources in Chhattisgarh through phytochemical evaluation

ICFRE, Dehradun

2012 - 2015

Dr.F.Shirin 

 

42

Studies on variation in reserpine content in some high yielding genotypes of in vitro and seedling raised Rauvolfia serpentina Benth

MPCST, Bhopal

2011-2016

Dr.Y.Mishra

Major Achievements

The division made significant research contribution, which is discernible by several national and international publications. Important achievements of the division are listed below :

Significant achievements

Forest tree improvement prorgramme represents the core research activity, having been pursued for the past two decades, which is succinctly described below:

1.         Population genetics

The division has identified and established 412 ha seed production area, 85.5 ha seedling seed orchard, 41 ha clonal seed orchard of teak (Tectona grandis) and 10 ha vegetative multiplication garden of teak (Tectona grandis), safed siris (Albizia procera), casuarinas (Casuarina equisitifolia) and bamboo in MP, Maharashtra and Orissa. The division has also evaluated several teak progeny trials established by SFDs of MP, Maharashtra and Orissa. Several plus trees of teak (Tectona grandis), khamer (Gmelina arborea) and safed siris (Albizia procera) have  also been selected. These selections provide improved quality of seeds and vegetative propagules for afforestation programme with augmented forest productivity.

Fig. 1: A view of teak seed production area (left) and  plus tree (right)

2.                   Clonal forestry:

Research activities on clonal forestry incorporated standardization of procedures of macro- and micro-propagation, macro-proliferation and air layering for several forest trees (Albizia procera, neem (Azadirachta indica), salai (Boswellia serrata), Gmelina arborea, karanj (Pongamia pinnata) and Tectona grandis), bamboos (Bambusa membranaceus, B. nana, B. polymorpha B. nutans, B. tulda, B. vulgaris var. green, B. vulgaris var. striata, Dendrocalamus asper, D. giganteus, D. strictus) and medicinal plants (brahmi bocopa monnierie), chandramul (Kaempferia galanga), sarpgandha (Rauwolfia serpentine), shadab (Ruta graveolens) and giloe (Tinospora cordifolia). The researches highlighted the use of rooting synergists such as ascorbic acid, thiamine, rice bran extract and potassium permanganate for augmented root induction in some species. Besides, the acidic pH also facilitated the root induction.

Fig 2: A view of mist chamber (left) and rooted cuttings (right) of Gmelina arborea

Fig 3: The in vitro shoot multiplication  (a) B. nutans, (b) B.tulda, (c) B. vulgaris var. green, (d) B. nana,

(e) B. polymorpha, (f) D.asper,  (g) D. strictus and (h) D. giganteus

Fig 4: The in vitro adventitious root formation ; (a) B. nutans, (b) B.tulda, (c) B. vulgaris var. green

(d) B. nana, (e) B. polymorpha, (f) D. asper, (g) D. strictus and (h) D. giganteus

Fig 5: Tissue culture raised hardened plantlets of bamboos; (a) B.nutans, (b) B. tulda and (c) B. vulgaris var. Green

Fig 6: In vitro propagation of R.serpentina; (a) sprouting of axillary buds from nodal segment and 

(b) multiplication of shoots on MS semisolid medium supplemented with 1.0 MBA + 1.0 M NAA;

(c) induction of rooting on MS medium supplemented with 15M NAA; (d) ex vitro rooting in shoots

 treated with 100ppm NAA for 24 hours.   

Figure 7: In vitro propagation of T.cordifolia; (a) sprouting of axillary buds from nodal segment on MS semisolid medium

supplemented with 25 μM BA; (b) multiplication of shoots on MS semisolid medium supplemented with 10 μM BA;

(c) elongation of shoots on MS medium supplemented with 10 μM BA+ 150 μM glutamine; (d) rooting in shoots

 treated with 10 μM IBA.   

3.                      Carbonic anhydrase as a biochemical marker for carbon sequestration in teak:

 A three-year study was conducted on carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC: 4.2.1.1) activity in teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) in relation to : (i) enzyme kinetics, (ii) isozyme and molecular weight, (iii) enzyme stability on storage, (iv) standardization of extraction buffer system and suitable leaf position and season for optimum enzyme activity, (v) age and genotypic variation in the enzyme activity and photosynthetic parameters and (vi) relationship between enzyme activity and photosynthesis.  CA in teak exhibited Km value as 15.20 mM CO2 and Vmax value as 35,448 U mg-1 chlorophyll, which declined by 50% and 70%, respectively in one-week-old extraction. 

                                                                 Fig 4

 Fig 8: CA isozyme in teak (Tectona grandis) : (a) different ages (years) of trees (I-25, II-22, III-19, IV-16, V-12, VI-10) and

(b) one year-old half-sib families (I-TNT-20, II-APKEA-25, III-APNPL-4, IV-APJNB-1, V-APNPL-5, VI-MHAL-P9,

VII-MHSC-J2, VIII-MHEM-R1, IX- MHAL-P7, X-APT-6) and (c) molecular weight of CA using molecular marker proteins

(20 l enzyme extract containing 0.8-1.0 mg soluble protein loaded in each well) .

 4.                 Molecular diversity analysis in teak

Molecular diversity analysis of teak populations and plus trees was made using three molecular marker systems, viz., RAPD, ISSR and AFLP. The investigations revealed that teak populations of the central India were different from those of peninsular India. The population exhibited partitioning of maximum genetic diversity within population and minimu across the populations. Similarly, plus trees of teak were successfully finger printed using all three molecular marker systems. The efficiency of the marker system was in the order: AFLP > ISSR > RAPD. The information can be utilized for identification of different teak populations and cataloguing of teak plus trees.

 

 Fig 9: Molecular marker profiles of teak plus trees; RAPD (top), ISSR (middle) and AFLP (bottom)

5.   Azadiractin quantification in Azadirachta indica

The secondary metabolite azadirachtin was quantified in different populations of Azadirachta indica through HPLC. Maximum azadirachtin was obtained in the seeds, in vitro shoots and callus cultures at Gwalior and Sihore populations. This information can be used to produce quality planting material for plantation purposes.

6.      6. Establishment of germplasm bank of Litsea glutinosa (Lour)

The bark of L. glutinosa constitutes the common demulcent drug sold in Indian market under the name of Maida Lakri. Maida bark is also used for Agarbatti making industry, which consumes almost the whole production of the bark of L. glutinosa. Due to increase in demand, the trees were extensively damaged for the extraction of bark. This indiscriminate exploitation of the stem bark made the species as threatened and endangered. Therefore, there was an urgent need to rescue the endangered germplasm of Litsea. At T.F.R.I. Jabalpur, we have collected material from the ten different forest divisions of Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh and established in the form of germplasm bank. Material is planted in three replications with three plants per plot in randomized complete block design.

                                                         

Fig 10: Germplasm bank of Litsea glutinosa (Lour) established at TFRI campus, Jabalpur

7.      Genetic improvement of bamboo

Under genetic improvement programme of bamboo, germplasm bank of four bamboo species viz, viz, Bambusa tulda, Bambusa vulgaris, Dendrocalamus strictus and Bambusa bamboos established in the silviculture nursery of the institute. A total of 169 rhizomes were collected from Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh and Odisha.  The multiplication and propagation of four species from the rhizomes assembled in germplasm bank is continued. The propagated plants are maintained by further process of macroproliferation.

8.      Germplasm collection and ex situ conservation of Pterocarpus marsupium

Under CAMPA Chhattisgarh funded project, the work of germplasm collection was done in diverse areas falling in three agro climatic zones of Chhattisgarh. The seedlings raised from the locality of Tamnar (Raigarh), Asna (Jagdalpur), Baisgaon (Antagarh), Tadoki (Antagarh), Raipur, Ambikapur,  Balod (Durg), Bharuadih (Bilaspur),  Gurda (Kharsia, Raigarh) and Hati (Dharamjaygarh) were used for raising trial in Naya Raipur Chhattisgarh. This trial, referred to as seed source trail, was established in three replications with 10 seed source (treatments) and 6 number of plants in each replication followed by CRBD. Therefore, a total of 180 plants were planted in 7595 m2 area. Similarly, in Chindwara locality the seed source trial were established using the seedlings from Tadoki , Bhaisadwar,  Bhanupratappur, Balod, Raipur, Kharsia, Hati, Ambikapur, and Bilaspur. Seed source trail, was established in three replications with 09 seed source (treatments) and 6 numbers of plants in each replication followed by CRBD. A total of 162 plants were planted in 4760 m2 area. 21 Families in Raipur and 09 families in Chhindwara were planted with 25 plants in block design. Therefore, a total of 525 and 225 plants were planted in Raipur and Chhindwara, respectively as progeny trial.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fig 11: Selection of trees of Pterocarpus marsupium in Chhattisgarh

 

                                 

  Fig 12: Establishment of progeny trial of Pterocarpus marsupium in (a & b) Naya Raipur (c & d) CFRHRD campus, Chhindwara 

 9.      Somatic embryogenesis in Dalbergia latifolia

Under ICFRE funded project for genetic improvement of D.latifolia somatic embrygenesis was successfully obtained from cotyledons explants grown on MS medium variously supplemented  with 2, 4-D and kinetin.