Message from the Director

 

It gives me immense pleasure to welcome you to the official webpage of Tropical Forest Research Institute (TFRI), Jabalpur. TFRI, Jabalpur is a regional institute under the Indian Council of Forestry Research & Education to provide research support to various stake holders in central India covering the states of Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra and Odisha. Its origin goes back to 1973 when a Regional Forest Research Centre (RFRC) was established which later on was upgraded in to a full-fledged institute in April 1988. The institute has steadily advanced in terms of infrastructure and specialized itself as a major nucleus for research on forestry and environment. In its jurisdiction, TFRI covers 33 agroclimatic zones as well as 5 major forest types rich in biological and ethnic diversity. The institute has a satellite research centre known as Centre for forestry research and human resource development (CFRHRD) at Chhindwara, MP.

        Dr. G. Rajeshwar Rao, ARS           TFRI has a vision "To develop into a focal institution for providing strong research support to sustainable development

                        Director                             of forests and forestry sector in central India". It is mandated to conduct research on:

 

The institute implements its mandated research programme through highly qualified scientists, forest officers and technical personnel,deployed in eight research divisions viz., Agro-forestry, Biodiversity and Sustainable Management, Forest Ecology and Rehabilitation, Forest Entomology, Forest Pathology, Genetics and Plant Propagation, Non-Wood Forest Produce, Silviculture & Joint Forest Management and an Extension division, each headed by a senior scientist/forester. Sound logistic support is rendered by well organized Estate, Electrical, Vehicle, Store & Purchase Sections. A Coordinator (Facilities) ensures smooth availability of research infrastructure. Finance and establishment branches with experienced staff and officers provide the administrative support.

The Library Cum Information Centre is well equipped with reading material and infrastructure. It has large collection of printed material including 11222 books, journals (National and International), Encyclopaedia, reports, records, news letters, proceedings, working plans, maps, publications of TFRI and ICFRE and reference books along with non book  materials like CDs, DVDs on forestry and multidisciplinary sciences.

It also has 102 Foreign and 52 Indian Journals in bounded form and about 30 Journals in unbounded forms. The institute presently subscribes to 8 Indian Journals, 6 magazines and news papers. All the old issues of journals and periodicals are hard bound and displayed in the reference section of the library. The library transactions are carried out using e-Granthalayapackage developed by NIC.

The Institute has an up-to-date informative website. Many brochures/pamphlets have also been scanned and placed on the website for the benefit of the general public. An interactive multimedia database has also been prepared and is available in the TFRI website named as INSPAK for the users as a readily available database. It contains detailed information on insect pests and diseases attacking 10 major tree species of central India.

The Institute has an Insect Reference Collection of more than 700 identified insect specimens occurring in central India. This Insect Reference Collection has been recently recognized by the National Biodiversity Authority as a National Repository, particularly for the insect orders: Lepidoptera and Termites.

A mycology herbarium of forest fungi exists at the institute withover 3500 specimens (including 813 identified species) systematically arranged in herbarium cabinets. An identification service for forest fungi is available from the institute.

A Forest Interpretation Centre and Museum in its campus has been opened at TFRI, and is open to general public for generating awareness on tropical forests. The displays are arranged in user friendly to make the subject more understandable, meaningful and interesting to all the visitors. This unit displays on the aspects relevant to forestry and environment, viz. geographical distribution of tropical forests, difference in flora and fauna and their diversity, utilization forest resources by human being, several other aspects related to tropical forestry. It also displays a few scientific instruments used in forestry research and their working principles.

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TFRI has initiated a project to raise an "Arachnarium" which is a structure where spiders are reared and on display. Apart from preserved spider specimens collected from all over India in the Arachnarium, there would be both indoor and outdoor exhibits of live spiders. To begin with, 50 species of spiders are proposed to be included in the Arachnarium. Some extraordinary spider, like the fish eating Pisaurids and bird eating giant wood spider would get prime focus. The Arachnarium would be decorated with posters, information tables of spiders and audio-visuals.

The Scientific manpower of the Institute has diverse specializations viz. Entomology,  Pathology, Genetics and plant breeding, Plant Chemistry, Non-destructive harvesting, Plant Systematics etc. It also has super-specialists in rare disciplines of Nematology, Arachnology, Seed Eco-physiology and Hydrology.

TFRI possesses many state of the art laboratory equipment and other research facilities. The Institute has a well laid out botanical garden, bamboosetum and a medicinal plants nursery.

 TFRI has been providing technical/advisory services to the stakeholders like state forest departments, forest development corporations, federations and farmers by  attending to their queries like insect/disease pests outbreaks and the remedial strategies. The institute is also providing technical consultancy to various Govt. organizations, PSU’s and corporate sector on eco-rehabilitation, reclamation of mined overburdens and other forest and environment related issues.

The broad research outcomes of the institute are as under:

I.               Taxonomy and documentation

i)      Fungi occurring in Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh:

813 fungi were collected from forest of Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh.           144 soil fungi were isolated from soil samples. Total 803 fungi were listed including 656 fungi on 138 trees, 32 on bamboos and grasses, 8 on palms, 41 on shrubs, 15 on climbers, 13 on herbs, 2 on ferns, 13 on dead wood and dead twigs, 2 on dead unidentified bark, 3 on leaf litter and 18 in rhizosphere soil of tree species. The identified forest fungi under the present work and other fungi reported from forests of MP and CG were listed tree wise.

249 fungi were identified, described in detail with photographs and camera lucida drawings and documented. The documented fungi include 2 new genera, 24 new species, 28 new records of fungi from India and 73 new host records for the fungi. The new genera proposed are: Acrodictiella and Kamalomyces, while the species reported new to science are: Acrodictiella indica, Acrostroma madhucae, A. sterculiae, Corynespora pogostemonis, C. supkharii, C. woodfordiae, Denticularia terminaliae, Hypoxylon dendrocalmi, H.spiralis, Hysterium jabalpurensis, Kamalomyces indicus, Kameshwaromyces butiicolous, Meliola ougeiniae, Mysterosporiella terminaliae, Phaeoseptoria shoreae, Phomopsis ougeiniae, Pseudocercospora isorae, P. schleicherae-oleosae, Rehmiodothis bambusae, Sirosporium aeglicola, S. xylopyrae, Stenella flacourticola, S. liliacearum, and S. satpurensis.

A mycology herbarium of forest fungi was established at the institute and 813 specimens were systematically arranged in herbarium cabinets. An identification service for forest fungi is started at the institute.

ii)                  Wood decaying fungi

68 stored wood forest depots of Central India (MP, CG and Orissa) were surveyed and one thousand one hundred and fifty nine (1159) specimens of wood decay fungi were collected on thirty four timber species. Out of these eighty three (83) species of wood decay fungi were distributed among 47 genera and 15 families.

Four genera namely Hapalopilus, Ceriporiopsis, Schizopora, and Postia and 7 species Hapalopilus nidulans, Ceriporiopsis merulinus, Trametes ochraceae, Postia placenta, Schizopora paradoxa, Pychoporus coccineus, and Pycnoporus cinnabarinus are recorded first time form Chattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh and Orissa on Shorea robusta and Pterocarpus marsupium and four (4) specimens of wood decay fungi were recorded as new to India namely Australohydnum dregeanum, Hjortstamia friesii, Schizopora flavipora and Hapalopilus nidulans.

Three combination of water borne preservative i.e. 2% solution of K2CO3, KHCO3, K2CrO7 ratio of 4:3:1 was used for field trials. The initiation of wood decay fungi initiate after first shower of rain. The chance of infection can be avoided by proper stacking of logs, avoiding water log area, shade and treatment of logs with 2% solution of K2CO3, KHCO3, K2CrO7 during storage.

iii)                Soil microfungi in Sal forests

The litter of sal possessed a great variety of fungal forms. Observations on microfungi associated with the litter decomposition of sal (Shorea robusta) under natural forest ecosystem Fungi belonging to different taxonomic group have been recorded from the decomposing sal leaf litter.

iv)                Biodiversity in Satpura, Amarkantak, Nauradehi, Debrigarh, Chhindwara-Patalkot, Preservation plots of MH

v)                  Forest Invasive Species of Jabalpur Region

63 Invasive Alien Species were recorded from the forest areas of Katni, Mandla, Seoni and Jabalpur districts of Madhya Pradesh. Spread of these species in the representative forest areas was determined through stem-density and Domin Krazin scale of cover and abundance. Life history of the most successful invaders revealed that most of them were characterised with profuse seed production with small seed size. Also, the species with high perrenation potential were able to colonise and establish successfully in the disturbed forest community. Experiments were carried out to control the invasive species. Mechanical removal of the invasive species was most effective treatment. Mechanical control coupled with crop competetion (by Senna torra) exhibited promising results.

vi)                Floristic diversity in teak plantations in MP, CG

Studies were carried out to determine the changing of plant diversity and soil properties in teak plantations of different age. Phyto-sociological studies were undertaken in teak plantations by laying out quadrats in 25 compartments of Rawan, Raikera and Sirpur Range of Barnawapara project division, Raipur Chhattisgarh. 48 trees, 12 shrybs abd 36 species of herbs were recorded from hte plantations.

The results indicate species richness and diversity in tree layer of the plantations increases with the age of plantations. Species richness and diversity in herb layer was found to be higher in younger plantations. Physico-chemical properties of soil collected from different aged plantation were analysed however, there was no significant impact on the physico-chemical properties of soil.

vii)              Ethno medicinal information from traditional herbal healers (Vaidyas, Ojhas, Guniyas) in Central Madhya Pradesh:

507 plants of medicinal value and 134 traditional herbal healers from Jabalpur, Mandla, Seoni and Chhindwara district of MP. The study documented the utilization pattern of plants in ethno medicine, marketing channel and price structure of medicinal plants/parts.

viii)            Ethno-botanical survey and documentation of species in PPA's

9 People’s Protected Areas maintained by Chhattisgarh Minor Forest Produce Federation, located in 5 divisions to document the floral diversity. Phyto-sociological (qualitative & quantitative values for structure & composition) studies have been undertaken in 0.1 ha. at each sites in all the nine people protected area. Data were recorded from fifty sample plots of each PPAs. The vegetation data are quantitatively analyzed for density, frequency and basal area. The relative values of frequency, density and dominance are determined. These quantities have been summed up for getting Importance value index (IVI) of individual species. On the basis of IVI, dominant, co-dominant and main associates are recognized at different sites.  362 species (Tree, shrub, herbs, grasses and climbers) form PPAs have been recorded and identified.  The threatened and present regeneration status of the species of the area has been enlisted for their proper conservation.  Ethno-botanical data has also been collected from these PPAs. More than 201 medicinal plants and their uses were recorded from these PPAs. Plants of these PPAs are documented with their local name, scientific name, family, habit, and their medicinal uses. Recommendations for better maintenance of PPAs have been suggested.

ix)                Indigenous species of Trichogramma Westwood & Trichogrammatoidea Girault (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) from central India and their utilization against important forest insect pests:

52 species (46 species of Trichogramma & 06 species of Trichogrammatoidea) were recorded for the first time from central India. Distribution and complete host range of all available species of Trichogramma & Trichogrammatoidea, from central India has been prepared. 14 new species, 12 of Trichogramma and 2 of Trichogrammatoidea have been described and illustrated in detail. Live culture of 5 indigenous species: Trichogramma raoi, T. plasseyensis, T. latipennis, T. breviciliata & T. breviflagellata maintained.

Laboratory testing of following Trichogramma species; Trichogramma raoi, Trichogramma  plasseyensis and Trichogramma breviciliata  has been carried out, against important key forest insect pests.

x)                  Forest dwelling Braconids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from central India:

37 parasitoids have been identified up to genus level. Important taxonomic characters of 7 known species (Apanteles tachardiae, Apanteles hyblaeae, Apanteles antipoda, Apanteles cajani, Apanteles agilis, Diaeretiella rapae & Chelonus (Chelonus) gastrus ) have been illustrated. Complete host-record and distribution of all Indian Braconid species has been prepared.

xi)                Natural enemies of Teak Pests:

Seven species of parasitoids namely, Echthromorpha notularia, Trophocampa indubia, an unidentified species of Brachymeria, three unidentified species of Sturmia, an unidentified species of nematode, three species of insect predators namely, Calleida splendidula, Canthecona furcellata and Chrysoperla carnea, one species of bird predator namely, Corvus macrohynchos and unidentified spiders, and a species of fungal pathogen namely, Aspergillus flavus.

Among the natural enemies, the predator C. carnea and the pathogen A. flavus are new record on H. puera. All parasites recorded were found infesting the larval stages of the pest. The natural enemies of E. machaeralis noticed include eight species of parasitoids namely, A. machaeralis, an unidentified species of Apanteles, Brachymeria and Sturmia, C. hepaliae, T. indubia and X. cera and an unidentified species of nematode, two species of insect predators namely, C. furcellata and C. carnea, and unidentified spiders, and three species of fungal pathogens namely, A. niger, B. bassiana and F. oxysporum.

The overall percentage parasitism due to different parasites ranged from 11 to 14% in semi-moist, 7 to 10% in dry and 3-5% in very dry teak forests, but during the early outbreak period of pest it was very less. Among the parasitoids, A. machaeralis, was recorded to be the major parasite of E. machaeralis. Among the natural enemies, the occurrence of nematode, the predator C. carnea and the fungal pathogen A. niger are new record on E.machaeralis.

Developed rearing technique of a potential polyphagous insect predator, C. furcellata and its alternative hosts. Carried out laboratory culture of A. flavus, A. niger and B. bassiana and conducted pathogenicity tests against target pest.

 

II.                Screening  of:

i)                    Species suitable for biodrainage:

Study was undertaken to identify suitable tree species to drain out excess water of the soil in waterlogged sites of canal command areas through biodrainage and to enhance the site productivity in Bargi command area (M.P.). The experiments were conducted through strip plantations of seven tropical forest tree species viz. Acacia nilotica, Albizia lebbek, Albizia procera, Dalbergia sissoo, Eucalyptus hybrid, Pongamia pinnata and Terminalia arjuna raised along the canal and lysimetric experiments. E. hybrid and P. pinnata showed steady rate of transpiration, more water use and higher biomass, hence these species have high potential to be used as efficient bio-drainage The strip plantation of these species can be done along the canal in rows and the number of rows can be decreased with increasing distance from the canal. The suitable gap between the group of rows can be maintained to facilitate the agricultural operations. This way, the waterlogged sites in canal command areas can be managed and site productivity can be enhanced.

ii)                  Teak clones resistant to defoliator and skeletonizer:

Twenty four, out of 150 teak clones of MP origin were identified as highly resistant (HR) against teak defoliator and leaf skeletonizer. Laboratory feeding bioassay on MP teak clones and progeny revealed differential feeding potentiality of teak defoliator and skeletonizer on different clones. Leaf water plays a critical role and inversely proportional to relative resistance in clones and progeny of teak.

 

iii)        Entomopathogenic Nematodes for effectiveness against teak pests:

6 native populations of entomopathogenic nematodes were collected from the forest floor for the first time from central India, out of which one species, named Steinernema dharanaii has been identified as new-to-science through morphological and molecular characterization (Accession no.JX897899). The evaluation with white grub(Holotrichia rustica) revealed that a dose of 6000 infective juveniles (ijs) of S. dharanaii was very effective.

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III.             Management of diseases and pests:

i)               Bacterial and viral diseases in Gmelina, Albizzia:

Overall 250 bacterial/viral disease sample were collected from 27 forest nurseries of Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and Maharashtra. Out of them 245 bacterial wilt and collar rot (teak, khamer) and 5 with virus infection (A. lebbek, A. procera, T. grandis, G. arborea). Bacteria and viruses caused 2.5% economic losses in different nurseries caused by. Total 9 bacterial isolates were purified and sensitivity test carried out to assess suitability of antibiotics for their application in nursery.

An experiment has been laid out in nursery to control wilt and collar rot disease of teak A. procera, A. lebbek and Gmelina arborea. Indidence of Xanthomonas leaf curl and stunting in young teak plantations at Raipura, South Panna Division noticed. Disease was successfully controlled with the application of streptocyclin 0.1% in combination with monocrotophos 0.036%.

ii)                  Root Rot & Stem decay in Acacia catechu:

In Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra khair mortality was observed in 9-20 years old plantations due to root rot disease caused by a fungus, Ganoderma lucidum which varies from 0-93% can be suppressed by drenching of an aqueous solution (10 L water) of 500g urea and 250g superphosphate per tree along with 0.2% Bavistin®.

Total 18 fungi were found associated with different stages of khair mortality which include 6 fungi, namely Haplopilus nudulans, Lenzites pisolotii, Monodictys castaneae, Resinicium bicolor, Rigidoporus vinctus and Trametes hirusita recorded for the first time on khair from central India. The mortality can be minimized by avoiding pure plantation.

iii)                Pests of R.Serpentina, W.somnifera, C.borivillianum, Abelmoscus, Gloriosa superba:

Important diseases of Rauvolfia serpentine, Chlorophytum borivillianum and Withania somnifera were recorded from MP and Chattisgarh. Biocontrol agents namely Streptomyces sp. Bacillas amyloliquefaciens, Trichoderma herzianum and biopesticide (1 lit. cow urine + 100 gms. leaves of Azadirachta indica, Ailanthus excels and Calotropis procera) along or in combination were applied in the field. The results of experiment revealed that Bavistin 0.05% plus Streptomyces sp. (106/ml) in the month of July and August has been proved effective in protecting leaf-spots and inflorescence diseases and for better seed production of R. serpentine while foliar spray of  Strepmyces sp. showed less disease incidence in Chlorophytum borivillianum and for better tiuber yield. Roo-knot disease of Withania somnifera was expectedly managed by adding 50% Neem cake in the potting mix.

Five insect pests (defoliator Anomis flava, Sylepta derogate; shoot borer Earias vitella; red cotton bug Dysdercus cingulatus) on A. moschatus, four insect pests (defoliator Polytela gloriosae, Amsacta lactineus, Diacrisia oblique; banded blister beetle Malabris pastulata) on G. superb, two insect pests (bug Plautia crossota and aphid Aphis gossypi) on W. somnifera were recorded and identified. Field experiments against P. gloriosae and A. flava revealed that after 7 days of treatments, B. thuringensis 1% and combination of Bt + neem based Gronim 1% were most effective. Field experiments revealed that the predator Chrysoperla cornea followed by parasite Trichogramma chilonis was most effective for reduction of the larval population. Neem based Gronim 1% followed by Bt 1% was found to be most effective against Dysdercus cingulatus.

iv)               Vascular wilt of Neem, Gmelina, Aonla:

Incidence of wilt in Aonla, Khamer and Neem has been surveyed in different forest research and extension nurseries located in Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra. The disease incidence was recorded between 06-26% in different provenances and different species. Incidence of wilt was highest in Khamer and ranked as first whereas Neem and Aonla were ranked as second and third respectively.

In forest nurseries long term use of some well known traditional systemic fungicides like Bavistin to seeds, cuttings and graft materials has turned pathogen resistant to them.

Bavistin 0.2% is quite effective against wilt pathogen when good sanitation practices were strictly followed. Ridomil commercially available from Syngenta (Metalaxyl-M (Mefenoxam)04%+Mencozeb 64% w.p.) is a newly emerged fungicide that gives very good results in 0.1% and 0.2% concentration depending upon the severity and extent of damage predicted by the experts. Ridomil 0.1% is used to drench soil and potting mixture to prevent inoculum build up which later on cause vascular wilt whereas Ridomil 0.2% is used to treat infected seedlings.

v)                 Teak skeletinizer, Albizzia leaf feeder, Bamboo leaf roller:

In nurseries and young plantations of teak, siris and bamboo,which are severely attacked respectively by teak defoliator(Hyblaea puera), leaf skeletonizer(Eutectona machaeralis), Albizia foliage feeder (Spirama retorta) and bamboo leaf roller(Cryptisia coclesalis) in central India, integration of methods like using resistant seeds/saplings for plantation and foliar spray of 1.0 per cent Bacillus thuringensis (B.t.) for teak pests and 1.5 per cent B.t. for Albizia foliage feeder and bamboo leaf roller may be done. Apart from that 5% water extract of Annona squamosa or commercially available neem extract can alternatively be used against all the above key pests. The lowest effective dose of synthetic chemical pesticide i.e. 0.001 per cent of cypermethrin or deltamethrin can be sprayed against key pests of teak, 0.002 per cent of cypermethrin or deltamethrin against foliage feeder of A. procera and 0.08 per cent of monocrotophos against bamboo leaf roller.

vi)                White grubs in nursery:

As a first report, three species of white grubs, namely Holotrichia rustica, H. mucida and Schizonycha ruficollis, were found infesting teak seedlings in Ramdongari Forest Nursery, under Forest Development Corporation of Maharashtra, Nagpur. These pests, caused heavy destruction of teak seedlings in the nursery and if no control measures are applied, were capable of damaging 100% seedlings. An comprehensive management practice under the concept of IPM was developed and extended to the field authorities, the details of which are Appendix-VII.

vii)             Tendu leaf gall:

Deltamethrin 0.002% followed by cypermethrin 0.03% was the most effective against gall forming insect Trioza obsolete of Diospyros melanoxylon.  Fytolon 2% (15 g/10 lit of water) was found to be most effective against foliar disease/leaf spot disease caused by Pseudocercospora helleri in Diospyros melanoxylon.

Study on the effect of different pruning period i.e. cultural practices against T. obsoleta / foliar diseases revealed that first pruning including control fire in first week of March (06.03.2013) is most effective with respect to less incidence of T. obsoleta and also increased leaf weight and area.

IV.            Biocontrol:

i)        Use of Actinomycetes against pathogens:

One actinomycete (Streptomyces sp.) and three bacteria were isolated from soil and were screened in the laboratory for antagonistic activity against pathogens of forest tree species viz. Alternaria alternata, Curvularia lunata, Sarocladium oryzae, Fusarium oxysporum, Ganoderma lucidum and Macrophomina phaseolina

Suitable formulation was developed after growing Streptomyces sp. in seventeen different substrates. Farm yard manure and chicken manure were found as the best substrates and they were found as the best carrier for this biocide. Streptomyses sp. was also multiplied in bulk by using lab fermentor in liquid PDA medium. The inoculum in bulk was prepared by using farm yard manure as the carrier for field application. The bulk culturing of bacteria was tried in PDA broth as well as in lignite.

Post-emergence damping-off disease of A. procera, A. lebbek and D. sissoo and Acacia nilotica were also controlled. The growth and biomass of these species were also enhanced by treatment with Streptomyces sp. The trial of Streptomyces sp. to control sheath blight disease of D. asper also gave good performance by encouraging the healthy culms. Trials of Streptomyces sp. in the present study exhibited successful control of different pathogens as compared with the fungicidal treatments. 

The use of this bio-agent was beneficial from pesticidal residue problems and also to safe guard the soil in nursery and plantations.  It is a self-multiplying species of Streptomyces in soil, which is antagonistic to a number of soil borne pathogens. Streptomyces sp. and antagonistic bacteria (T1, T2, T3) can be used to control the different pathogen which are responsible for causing seed borne diseases, root diseases, damping off and leaf blight diseases in the nursery.

ii)         Trichogramma raoi in controlling teak pests:

Amongst the species screened Trichogrmma raoi was found to be effective and the Institute developed a protocol for mass-multiplication and release. The species is now used for biological control of leaf skeletonizer (Eutectona machaeralis) and defoliator(Hyblaea puera) by releasing in the teak plantations and forests @ 1.5 lakh / ha. The application of this agent has provided promising results with about 50% protection in defoliation, as compared to the unreleased sites. It was found that that the parasitoids should be liberated in 4-5 installmentswith highest amount of liberation in September to get the maximum protection of teak leaves. The Institute has come out with TFRI-Trichocard for liberating the species, the details of which are at Appendix-VIII.

V.        INSPAK:

An interactive multimedia database has also been prepared and is available in the TFRI website named as INSPAK for the users as a readily available database. It contains detailed information on insect pests and diseases attacking 10 major tree species of central India.

VI.                        Improving Teak seed production in TSO  through pests and pathogens

Potential pathogens and insects responsible for the low seed production in teak seed orchards were studied and their management strategies were established. Spermoplane micro flora of Teakseeds was recorded in the inflorescence, immature and mature stages of fruits.The result of the experiment showed maximum number of fruits and weight of teak fruits in the treatment of Monocrotophos (0.05%) + Bavistin (0.02%), the insect and fungal damage was also less in the treatment whereas other treatment does not show significant result. Therefore, application of Monocrotophos (0.05%) + Bavistin (0.02%) in the month of July and 2nd dose during 1st week of August enhances fruit productivity in TSO's.

VII.                      Improving Tendu productivity

A study was undertaken to standardize techniques to enhance the quality and sustainable production of Diospyros melanoxylon(Tendu) leaves utilizing optimum doses of organic and inorganic fertilizers in Chhattisgarh. Experiments on foliar spray of chemical fertilizers were carried out in sample plots at Morga, Litipara and Kotadol (C.G.). A combination spray of 2% nitrogen and 1% phosphorus was found as the best treatment, which could be due to deficiency of nitrogen and phosphorus in the soil. To observe the effect of chemical and biofertilizers, a general dose of 100 kg/ha nitrogen and 25 kg/ha phosphorus followed by  a combined dose of 500 g ranker neem granules and 1000 g VAM per 5 m x 5 m size plot respectively showed the maximum enhancement in tendu leaf size. Experiments on pruning practices showed that maximum size of tendu leaves results when seedlings having 2 – 4 cm diameter are pruned at ground level.

VIII.                   Eco-restoration of Mine dumps(Limestone, Coal, Iron, Copper, Manganese):

Open cast mining for coal, iron, copper, manganese, lime stone produces scars defacing surface features along with inversion of soil-substratum sequence superimposition of natural fertile soil by infertile materials. Rehabilitation of mined spoils requires long term ecological approach as a solution and based on the biotic and abiotic characteristics of overburden areas. Scientists of TFRI were able to suggest biological reclamation protocol with priority for establishment of flora and initiation of a successful ecological succession. A broad description of the field technique standardized  is at Appendix-IX.

IX.                          Standardization of Sustainable Production and Utilization of NTFPs:

i)                    Production technology of Kalmegh, Gurmar, Giloe, Sarpagandha

ii)                 Processing technology of Madhuca latifolia, Shorea obusta,Schleichera oleosa, Pongamia pinnata, Buchanania lanzan, Bel.

iii)                Non-destructive Harvesting practices of Arjuna, Chirounji, Nagarmotha, Maida, Aonla, Baheda, Bayuvidang, Bhui-aonla, Baichandi, Salparni

iv)                Value addition of Curcuma aromatic, Careya arborea, Schlechera oleosa, Cissus, Mahua, Bamboo

v)                  Quality assessment of Asparagus racemosus, Buchanania lanzan, Andrographis paniculata,  Phyllanthus emblica and Embelia ribes

 X.                            Allometric modelling for Carbon stock assessment:

Non destructive methods using allometric equations based on girth for quantification of carbon sequestration in tropical trees viz. teak and eucalypts were developed. The regression equation with GBH, y = 3.174x – 21.27, r2=0.898 (p<0.01), for teak was found precise and convenient due to the difficulty in determination of height and age in dense natural forests of teak. The equation was evaluated in teak agroforestry systems that included Triticum aestivum(wheat), Cicer arietinum (gram), Withania somnifera (ashwagandha),Avena fatua(wild oat) and Hordeum vulgare(barley) as agricultural crops. The regression equation with GBH i.e. y = 2.224 x – 35.80, r2 = 0.89 (p<0.01) was used to quantify carbon in eucalyptus trees in agroforestry system with Triticum aestivum (wheat) as agricultural crop established at farmer's field.

XI.                         Agro-Forestry Models:

Agroforestry related research includes designing agro forestry models for improving land use in various agro-climate regions based on different tree-crop production systems, their spatial geometry, production of goods and services and their ecological impact. A list of agro-forestry models developed by the Institute is at Appendix-X. Introductory trial of nonconventional lac host species Flemingia in combination with Arhar as an agro-forestry model is also going on.

XII.     Varietal improvement of R.serpentina

Trials were conducted for varietal improvement of Rauvolfia serpentina and Tinospora cordifolia through germplasm selection, evaluation and breeding.A method for maximum germination by treating seeds with 100 ppm GA3 was standardized inR.serpentina. The multi-location germplasm evaluation field trials were established in three localities, viz. Chandrapur (MS), Raigarh (C.G.) and Jabalpur (M.P) of both species. The genotype collected from Angul (Odisha) was found to be superior with  respect to reserpine content.

 XII.                      Germination eco-physiology of Schleichera oleosa and Pterocarpus marsupium,:

Germination ecophysiology of two important tropical forest tree species Schleichera oleosa and Pterocarpus marsupium was studied. The results indicate that Schleichera oleosa has combined type of dormancy (both physical and physiological) that can be overcome by combined treatments. Seeds of Schleichera oleosa achieved highest germination when seed coat was fully removed or scarified mechanically and seed were treated with GA3 at the dose of 500 ppm. Seed germination is better in mixed soil.Seeds of Pterocarpus marsupiumhave no dormancy. Scarification, i.e. cutting of fruit coat at one side resulted in improving germination percentage. Germination percentage and germination speed were highest for seeds placed on the surface of soil. A broad description of the technique to obtain good germination of the two species is given in Appendix-XI.

 XIII. Lead Institution of Achanakmar-Amarkantak Biosphere Reserve:

TFRI acted as the Lead institution for Achanakmar-Amarkantak biosphere reserve, Chhattisgarh and was instrumental in preparation of the technical proposals for getting the area notified as Biosphere Reserve. The work resulted in identification of 1498 floral species (7 algae, 178 fungi, 130 lichens, 16 bryophyte, 40 pteridophyte, 16 gymnosperms and 1111 angiosperms. In addition 117 invertebrates (butterflies, moths, beetles, cricket, centipedes) and 210 species of vertebrates (mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and fishes) were recorded. Out of 327 identified species of fauna in different ranges of BR, about 17 % species are regionally threatened under various categories.

Publications:

So far, the institute has published 716 research papers in national research journals having good impact factors, out of which 71 research papers have been published in foreign journals. TFRI publishes a monthly e-magazine ‘Van Sangyan’ with articles written in simple English/regional languages, oriented towards the field forester, farmer to further assist the effective dissemination of the research findings. For the scientific community, the Institute publishes every six months a peer reviewed highly rated “Journal of Tropical Biodiversity”. The Institute has published a large number of books, technical bulletins, brochures, pamphlets etc.

 Extension:

            While the research divisions conduct core research, the extension division acts as an interface between the institute and the stake holders for dissemination of information and technologies developed at the institute. The Institute and its satellite center regularly organize seminars, training courses, exhibitions, besides publishing technical bulletins, brochures, pamphlets, posters, etc. The institute has been frequently providing Technical/ Advisory Services to the State Forest Departments and Forest Development Corporations under jurisdiction.

Team from the entomology division of the institute visited the affected nurseries and observations were recorded on timing of emergence of chafer beetles (adults of white grubs), their preferred host plants, status of incidence and intensity of attack in nursery beds, population density of white grubs per unit area and other edaphic factors. After preliminary assessment, necessary preventive and remedial measures under the concept of Integrated Pest Management were suggested and demonstrated. Status of white grub attack in such affected nurseries and effect of suggested preventive and remedial measures was continuously monitored after their application within the same season and also in the subsequent seasons through visits and inputs received from the field.

TFRI is actively involved in investigating the incidence, distribution and management of sal borer(Hoplocerambyx spinicornis), a devastating pest in sal forests of central India. The entomologists have been providing technical advisory services to the State Forest Department of Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh in this regard.

TFRI, Jabalpur has organized nine One Week Specialized Trainings on Bamboo Handicrafts for Farmers and Artisans of the State of Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarhto provide practical hands-on training in preparation of small craft items and furniture, its preservation, finishing, pricing and marketing etc. Highly skilled master trainers from Modern Gramoudyog Sewa Sansthan, Barreilley were engaged. Further, to identify trainees with promising capabilities and to develop their skills as a trainer, special Trainers' Training was also organized.

Through these trainings, 130 artisans, including women participants were trained. The artisans who were, prior to the training were manufacturing petty items like bamboo baskets, hand fans and other items of daily use learnt techniques to add values to their craft and also learnt many new decorative and daily use bamboo items, including bamboo furniture. In addition, the participants were also informed about the preservation techniques of bamboo. Socio-economic surveys were also conducted to understand the socio-dynamics of bamboo craft.

 Van Vigyan Kendras:

With an aim to disseminate various technologies developed by ICFRE, its institutes and State Forest Departments, to the user groups, Van Vigyan Kendras(VVK) were established by ICFRE. TFRI has four VVKs at Jabalpur,   Jalna, Raipur and  Koraput. Since inception of the VVKs, about 50 training programmes have been conducted by TFRI. In all, training on various technologies was imparted to 1250 stakeholders. The training programmes coverthemes like Production of Quality Planting Stock, Sustainable Management of Non Forest Produce, adopting suitable Agroforestry models for optimized space utilization and generation of additional income andForest Protection.

 

 Vision for 25 years:

            Keeping in view the ultimate goal of forestry in the service of nation and people, given the research gaps and global forestry scenario, TFRI proposes the following themes for intensive research in the coming times.

·         Enhancing Productivity:

i)                    Seed Production, Quality & Certification, Long term storage

ii)                  Clonal Forestry using molecular characterization tools

iii)                Growth stimulation and plant health in Nursery(Biofertilizers, Pest and Disease Management)

iv)                Rehabilitation of degraded forests including bamboo

v)                  Multi-tier forestry

·      Silviculture:

i)                    Review and optimization of Silviculture systems

ii)                  Stand structures and dynamics

iii)                Tree temperaments

iv)                Disturbance regimes and regeneration

·         Non-Timber Forest Products:

i)                    Assessment of availability and sustainable harvesting limits

ii)                  Non-destructive and hygienic harvesting methods

iii)                Processing and value addition

iv)                Marketing

·         Disease, Vector and Insect Pest Surveillance and their IPM

·         Effect of climate change:

i)                    Biodiversity

ii)                  Responsive adaptation

iii)                 Resilient genotypes

iv)                Population dynamics and ecology of RET species

v)                  Pests, Pathogens and Invasive Species

vi)                Carbon stock and sequestration

·         Bio-Systematics

i)                    Consolidation of taxonomic studies

ii)                  Surveys to fill information gaps

iii)                Cladistics

iv)                Interactive digital databases

·         Development of appropriate short rotation Agroforestry Models

·         Long term ecological studies ( Sample / Preservation Plots)

·         Assessment and valuation of ecological services by pollinators, arthropods etc.

·         Market and Policy Research

·         Testing and Analytical Services

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